Cosgrove Village Pound

Position of the Pound in Cosgrove in 1883
April 23rd 1852 Repairing Pound Wall 6s. 0d
1853 New Post to Pound 3s 6d
New lock to do 1s
1859 Repairing the Pound Gate 2s 6d



Wikipedia
The Village pound was a feature of most English medieval villages.

A high-walled and lockable structure served several purposes; the most common use was to hold stray sheep, pigs and cattle until they were claimed by the owners usually for the payment of a fine or levy. Records of numbers were kept by notches on a stick, which was then split lengthways and pieces given to each party - this was the Tally stick system.

The Sussex County Magazine in 1930 stated:

"Nearly every village once had its pound for stray cattle, pigs, geese, etc. to be driven into and there kept at the expense of the owner, till such time as he should pay the fine (the amount claimed by the person on whose land they had strayed, for damage done), and the fee to the pound keeper, man or sometimes woman, for feeding and watering the same.

If not claimed in three weeks, the animals were driven to the nearest market and sold, the proceeds going to the impounder and pound-keeper.



Transcription of the Constables Book
   
£
s
d
1851  
 
 
 
April 23rd Paid for this Book
 
1
3
1852 Repairing Pound Wall
 
6
0
  Mr Rande for Handcuffs
 
7
0
   
 
14
3
  19 April 1852 Allowed by us
 
 
 
  Two signatures illeg
 
 
 
   
 
 
 
   
£
s
d
1853 Paid Repairing the Stocks
1
1
"
Febery Serving Summons
"
"
"
March 15 on Overseers
"
"
"
  Notices do
 
2
6
   
1
3
6
  March 24 1853
 
 
 
  Examined and approved at a Vestry meeting
 
 
 
  J Graham Chairman
 
 
 
  D Warner
 
 
 
  Thomas Slade
 
 
 
  Mr Congreve Bill
 
7
"
   
1
10
6
  20 April 1853
 
 
 
  Allowed      J C Mansel
 
 
 
   
 
 
 
1853 Constables Accnt
 
 
 
  New Post to Pound
 
3
6
  New lock to do
 
1
"
  Serving Summonses
 
"
"
  on Overseers and Notices
 
2
6
June 1 William Gumms Bill
 
13
"
  Daniel Holmans Bill
1
16
1
   
2
6
1
   
 
 
 
  Mch 2nd 1854 Examd and approved at a Vestry meeting
 
 
 
  W Clarke Chairman
 
 
 
  Thos Watts
 
 
 
  Danl Warren
 
 
 
  17 April 1854
 
 
 
  Allowed by us
 
 
 
  Harry J Barton
 
 
 
  Easter?
 
 
 
   
 
 
 
1854 Constables Acct
 
 
 
  Serving Summonses on Overseers and Notices
 
2
6
Decm 19 Paid James Deacon
 
7
4
  Mr Wilford, attending at the Cock to be sworn Constable
 
2
6
  Mr Wilford, with Prisoner G Paget
"
5
"
   
 
17
4
  March 22 1855
 
 
 
  Examined & Approved at a Vestry meeting
 
 
 
  J Graham
 
 
 
  Thomas Dawson
 
 
 
  Thomas Slade
 
 
 
  Wm Clarke
 
 
 
   
 
 
 
  12th April 1835
 
 
 
  Allowed by me                         Harry J Barton
 
 
 
   
 
 
 
   
 
 
 
1856 Constables Acct 1855
 
 
 
  Serving Summons on Overseers and Notices
 
2
6
   
 
 
 
15 April 1856
 
 
 
  Allowed    Harry J Barton
 
 
 
                       J C Mansel
 
 
 
   
 
 
 
1857 Constables Acct
 
 
 
  Serving Summons on Overseers and Notices
 
2
6
   
 
 
 
  30 April 1857
 
 
 
  Allowed by us
 
 
 
  Grafton
 
 
 
  J C Mansel
 
 
 
   
 
 
 
1858 Constables Acct
 
 
 
  Serving Summons on Overseers and Notices
 
2
6
   
 
 
 
  February 19 1858
 
 
 
  Examined and Approved at a Vestry meeting held this Day
 
 
 
   
 
 
 
  J Graham
 
 
 
  G E Thorne
 
 
 
  Wm Clarke
 
 
 
  J N Wilford
 
 
 
   
 
 
 
  14 April 1858
 
 
 
  Allowed by us 
 
 
 
  Harry J Barton
 
 
 
  John Al.hawes
 
 
 
   
 
 
 
  At a Vestry meeting held this 19th day of February 1858 Mr John Norton Wilford was nominated, seconded and unanimously elected as Paid Constable for the Parish of Cosgrove at a Salary of Three Pounds per annum
 
 
 
  John Graham
 
 
 
  Geo Edw Thorne
 
 
 
  Wm Clarke
 
 
 
  Thos Cave
 
 
 
   
 
 
 
1859 Constables Acct
£
s
d
  Serving Summons on Overseers and Notices
 
2
6
  A New Constables Staff and Painting
 
6
6
  Repairing the Pound Gate
 
2
6
  New Lock for Pound
 
2
6
   
"
14
0
  Constable's Salary
3
"
"
   
3
14
0
   
 
 
 
  March 2nd 1859
 
 
 
  Examined and Approved at a Vestry meeting held this Day
 
 
 
  J Graham
 
 
 
  Wm Clarke
 
 
 
  Matw Willison
 
 
 
  John Dawson
 
 
 
  18th April 1859
 
 
 
  Allowed Harry J Barton
 
 
 
   
 
 
 
   
 
 
 
1860  Constables Acct
£
s
d
  Serving Summons on Overseers and Notices
 
2
6
   
 
 
 
  March 8th 1860
 
 
 
  Examined and Approved at a Vestry meeting held this Day
 
 
 
  J Graham Chairman
 
 
 
  Thomas Dawson
 
 
 
  23rd April 1860
 
 
 
  Allowed by us
 
 
 
  Grafton
 
 
 
  J C Mansel
 
 
 
   
 
 
 
   
 
 
 
1861 Constables Acct
£
s
d
  Serving Summons on Overseers and Notices
 
2
6
   
 
 
 
  April 1st 1861
 
 
 
  Examined and Approved at a Vestry meeting held this Day
 
 
 
  J Graham 
 
 
 
  G E Thorne
 
 
 
  Mat= Willison
 
 
 
  5th April 1861
 
 
 
  Allowed by us
 
 
 
  Harry I Barton
 
 
 
  J C Mansel
 
 
 
   
 
 
 
1862 Constables Acct
£
s
d
  Serving Summons on Overseers and Notices
 
2
6
Aug 30 For serving Summons and attending at Stony Stratford upon an Assault Case
 
4
0
   
 
6
6
  28th April 1862
 
 
 
  Allowed by us
 
 
 
  Harry I Barton
 
 
 
  Grafton
 
 
 
   
 
 
 
   
 
 
 
1863 Constables Acct
£
s
d
  Serving Summons on Overseers and Notices
 
2
6
   
 
 
 
  Feb 19 1863
 
 
 
  Examined and Approved at a Vestry meeting held this Day
 
 
 
  J Graham 
 
 
 
  Wm Clarke
 
 
 
  Jos[ep]h Foster
 
 
 
  J Scrivener
 
 
 
  20th April 1863
 
 
 
  Allowed by us
 
 
 
  Grafton
 
 
 
  J C Mansel
 
 
 
   
 
 
 
   
 
 
 
1863 Constables Acct
£
s
d
  Serving Summons on Overseers and Notices
 
2
6
  Conveyance of Prisoner to Stony Stratford
 
3
0
   
 
5
6
  Feb 17 1864
 
 
 
  Examined and Approved at a Vestry meeting held this Day
 
 
 
  J Graham 
 
 
 
  Wm Clarke
 
 
 
  J Scrivener
 
 
 
  Jos[ep]h Foster
 
 
 
  19th April 1864
 
 
 
  Allowed by us
 
 
 
  Harry J Barton
 
 
 
  J C Mansel
 
 
 
   
 
 
 
1864 Constables Acct
£
s
d
  Serving Summons on Overseers and Notices
 
2
6
Feb 25th Assault Cor... Jos Bignell
 
illeg
illeg
   
 
 
 
  March 3rd 1865
 
 
 
  Examined and Approved at a Vestry meeting held this Day
 
 
 
  J Graham 
 
 
 
  Wm Clarke
 
 
 
  J Scrivener
 
 
 
  Jos Foster
 
 
 
Februy Called out by Seargent Willis in search of Thomas Bignell
 
2
6
27 carried over
 
 
 
   
 
 
 
1866 Constables Acct
 
 
 
Jan 25th Conveyance of Prisoner
 
5
0
Jan 26th Attending at Stratford
 
5
0
Feb 27th Brought over
 
2
6
1865 Serving Summons on Overseers and Notices
 
2
6
  Feb 23rd 1866
 
15
0
  Examined and Approved at a Vestry meeting held this Day
 
 
 
  G E Thorne
 
 
 
  Wm Clarke
 
 
 
  Mat= Willison
 
 
 
  Thomas Dawson
 
 
 
  W A Robinson
 
 
 
  19th April 1866
 
 
 
  Allowed by us
 
 
 
  Grafton
 
 
 
  J C Mansel
 
 
 
   
 
 
 
1867 Constables Acct
 
 
 
  Serving Summons on Overseers and Notices
 
2
6
   
 
 
 
Feb 21/67 Examined and Approved at a Vestry meeting held this Day
 
 
 
  Mat= Willison
 
 
 
  Danl Warren
 
 
 
  Joseph Foster
 
 
 
  Wm Clarke
 
 
 
  23rd April 1867
 
 
 
  Allowed by us
 
 
 
  Harry I Barton
 
 
 
  J C Mansel
 
 
 
   
 
 
 
   
 
 
 
1868 Constables Acct
 
 
 
  Serving Summons on Overseers and Notices
 
2
6
   
 
 
 
  Examined and Approved at a Vestry meeting held this Day
 
 
 
  23rd March 1868
 
 
 
  C G Boulton
 
 
 
  William Clarke
 
 
 
  Matw Willison
 
 
 
  W A Robinson
 
 
 
  14th April 1868
 
 
 
  Allowed by us
 
 
 
  Harry I Barton
 
 
 
  J C Mansel
 
 
 
   
 
 
 
1869 Constables Acct
 
 
 
  Serving Summons on Overseers and Notices
 
2
6
  Sending to Brackley for the Coroner
 
5
0
   
 
 
 
  Examined and Approved at meeting held 16th March 1869
 
 
 
  William Clarke
 
 
 
  Daniel Warren
 
 
 
  John Adams
 
 
 
  12th April 1869
 
 
 
  Allowed by us
 
 
 
  Harry J Barton
 
 
 
  J C Mansel
 
 
 
   
 
 
 
   
 
 
 
1870 Constables Acct
 
 
 
  Serving Summons on Overseers and Notices
 
2
6
   
 
 
 
  Examined and Approved at a Vestry meeting held Feb 24/70
 
 
 
  John Warren
 
 
 
  John Ayles
 
 
 
  Daniel Warren
 
 
 
  27th April 1870
 
 
 
  Allowed by us
 
 
 
  Harry J Barton
 
 
 
  J C Mansel
 
 
 
   
 
 
 
1870 May 10 Conviction of Thomas Bignell for drunkenness and Assault on me
 
 
 
  Conviction
 
3
6
  Commitment
 
3
"
  Oaths
 
2
"
  2 meals
 
"
8
  For my own services & witnesses
 
10
"
   
 
18
6
   
 
19
2
May 20th For the conviction of Betsy Wilford
 
 
 
  Summeries? and Service
 
5
"
  Conviction
 
3
6
  Commitment
 
3
"
  Oaths
 
2
"
  For my own services & witness
 
7
6
   
1
1
2
   
 
 
 
   
 
 
 
1871 Constables Acct
 
 
 
  Serving Summons on Overseers and Notices
 
2
6
  Brought over
 
19
2
   
1
1
"
   
2
2
8
  Examined and Approved at a Vestry meeting held this Day
 
 
 
  March 31/71
 
 
 
  Matw Willison
 
 
 
  William Clarke
 
 
 
  G Carter ?
 
 
 
  John Ayles
 
 
 
  5th May 1871
 
 
 
  Allowed by us
 
 
 
  Harry I Barton
 
 
 
  J C Mansel
 
 
 
   
 
 
 
1872  Constables Acct for Service during the Year
 
 
 
July 14th Called upon at the Feast Barley Mow Me and Holdom
 
3
"
Aug 17th Called upon searching boats in account of order by pl Wolverton
 
3
"
  Same night A Moufs Drunk and Riotus
 
2
6
Sept 4th A row at Bignells
 
5
"
   
 
13
"
  Examined and Approved at a Vestry meeting held 
 
 
 
  July 27th 73
 
 
 
  G Cates
 
 
 
  Wm Clarke
 
 
 
  John Warren
 
 
 
  12th July 1873
 
 
 
  Allowed by us        and order made
 
 
 
   
 
 
 
1873 Constables Acct for Service during the Year
 
 
 
Aug 16th Called out to Blunt
 
 
 
20th Sept Do
 
 
 
17th Taking a Boy to Stratford
 
 
 
27th Called out to Dawes?
 
 
 
Dec 28th Called out to a Boat
 
 
 
   
 
 
 
  Jos Holdom received £1 for the year's services
 
 
 
  Examined and Approved at a Vestry meeting held 
 
 
 
  July 26th/74
 
 
 
  G Cater
 
 
 
  John Warren
 
 
 
  17th April 1874
 
 
 
  Allowed by us        
 
 
 
  Grafton
 
 
 
  A N Russell
 
 
 
   
 
 
 
1875  
 
 
 
Feb 25th Allowed at a meeting at the Parish Church to give Joseph Holdom £1.0.0 for the year's service as constable
 
 
 
   
 
 
 
  John Warren
 
 
 
  George Cater
 
 
 
  16th April 1875
 
 
 
  Allowed by us
 
 
 
  J C Mansel
 
 
 
  A N Russell
 
 
 
   
 
 
 
   
 
 
 
March 2nd At a Vestry meeting held at the Parish Church on the 2nd Day of March 1876 Joseph Holdom was allowed £1 " " for the year's service as Constable
1
"
"
   
 
 
 
  G Cater
 
 
 
  J Clarke
 
 
 
  28th March 1876
 
 
 
  Allowed by us
 
 
 
  J C Mansel
 
 
 
  Penrhyn
 
 
 
   
 
 
 
1877  
 
 
 
March 22 At a Vestry meeting held at the Parish Church on the 22nd March W Teal was allowed £1 for the year's service as Constable
1
0
0
  G F Stops
 
 
 
  J Clarke
 
 
 
  13th April 1877
 
 
 
  Allowed by us
 
 
 
  Grafton
 
 
 
  A N Russell
 
 
 
   
 
 
 
   
 
 
 
1878  
£
s
d
March 7th At a Vestry meeting held at the Parish Church on March 7th W Teal was allowed £1 for the year's service as Constable
1
"
"
   
 
 
 
  P G McDouall Chairman
 
 
 
  J Clarke
 
 
 
   
 
 
 
  12th April 1878
 
 
 
  Allowed by us
 
 
 
  J C Mansel
 
 
 
  E H Watts
 
 
 

INSTRUCTIONS TO CONSTABLES

Appointed under the Act of Parliament, 5 & 6 Victoria
cap. 109, and directed to be issued to them by the

COURT OF QUARTER SESSIONS OF THE PEACE,
OF THE
COUNTY OF NORTHAMPTON.

It should be understood, and particularly observed, as a leading principle, that a chief object is the PREVENTION OF CRIME

To this great end every effort of the Constable should be directed : the security of person and property, and the preservation of the public peace will be thus better effected, than by the detection and punishment of an offender after crime has been committed.
Offences may be divided into Felonies and Misdemeanors.

Felonies.
THE: principal felonies are, murder, and attempts to murder, or maim, manslaughter, rape, robbery, and attempts to rob, burglary, house-breaking, cattle, horse, and sheep-steeling, stealing from the dwelling-house, the person, and theft generally, receiving stolen goods, embezzlement, &c. also setting fire to any house, out- building, stacks, or crops, and all cases of forging and coining. The milior oGnecs are called misdemeanors, Hall as Bands, uttering counterfeit coin,

Misdemeanors.
The minor offences are called misdemeanors, such as frauds, uttering counterfeit coins riots, assaults, affrays, and such like offences.

Directions to Constables.
Power to Arrest
THE Constable may arrest one whom he has just cause to suspect to be about to commit a felony. Thus when a drunken person or a man in a violent passion, threatens the life of another, the Constable should interfere and arrest.

He should arrest any person having in his possession any picklock-key, crow jack, bit, or other implement with intent feloniously to break into any dwelling-house, warehouse, coach-house, stable, or out-building ; or any person armed with any gun, pistol, hanger cutlass, bludgeon, or offensive weapon ; or having upon him any instrument, with intent to commit any felonious act.

Every person found in any dwelling-house, warehouse, coach-house, out-house, or stable, or in any inclosed yard, garden, or area, and being there for any unlawful purpose, may be arrested.

In each of these cases the Constable must judge from the situation and behaviour of the party what his intention is. In some cases no doubt can exist, as when the party is a notorious thief, or acting with those who are thieves ; or when the party is seen to try people's pockets in a crowd, or to attempt to break into a house, or to endeavour to take any property secretly from another. The Constable will not act hastily, in case the intention is not clear, but content himself with watching closely the suspected party, that he may discover his design.

The Constable must arrest any one whom he sees in the act of committing a felony, or any one whom another positively charges with having committed a felony, or whom another suspects of having committed a felony, if the suspicion appear to the Constable to be well founded, and provided the person so suspecting go with the Constable.
Though no charge be made, yet if the Constable suspect a person to have committed a Felony he should arrest him : and if he have reasonable grounds for his suspicion he will be justified, even though it should afterwards appear that no Felony was in fact committed : but the Constable must be cautious in thus acting upon his own suspicions.
Generally, if the arrest was made discreetly and fairly in pursuit of an offender, and not from any private malice or ill-will, the Constable need not doubt that the law will protect him.

Power to detain suspicious Persons.
If, after sunset and before sunrising, the Constable shall see any one carrying a bundle or goods which he suspects were stolen, he should stop and examine the person, and detain him; but here, also, he should judge from circumstances (such as appearance and manner of the party, his account of himself, and the like) whether he has really got stolen goods, before he actually takes him into custody.

Power to enter Dwellings
The Constable must make every exertion to effect the arrest ; and the law gives him abundant power for the purpose. If the felon, or party accused of felony, fly, he may be immediately followed wherever he goes; and if he takes refuge in a house, the Constable may break open the doors, if necessary, to get in, first stating who he is, and his business ; but the breaking open outer doors is so dangerous a proceeding, that the Constable never should resort to it except in extreme cases, and when an immediate arrest is necessary.
There are some cases in which a Constable may and ought to break into a house, although no felony has been committed, when the necessity of the case will not admit of delay, as when persons are fighting furiously in a house, or when a house has been entered by others with a felonious intent, and a felony will probably be committed unless the Constable interfere, and there are no other means of entering : except in such cases, it is better, in general, that the Constable should wait till he has a warrant from a Magistrate for the purpose.
If a prisoner should escape he may be re-taken, and in immediate pursuit the Constable may follow him into any place or any house.

Powers to require persons to aid and assist.
If a Constable finds his exertions insufficient to effect the arrest, he ought to require all persons present to assist him, and they are bound to do so.
In cases of actual breaches of the peace, as riots, affrays, assaults, and the like, committed within the view of the Constable, he should immediately interfere, (first giving public notice of his Office, if he be not already known,) separate the combatants, and prevent others from joining in the affray. If the riot, &c. be of a serious nature, or if the offenders do not immediately desist, be should take them into custody, securing also the principal instigators of the tumult, and doing every thing in his power to restore quiet.
A Constable, in cases of assault which have not been committed in his presence, or within his view, is not aurthorized to arrest-- or assist in arresting the party charged ; nor is he to receive a person, so charged into his custody, unless the party has been arrested by some other Constable who saw the assault committed.
He may arrest any one assaulting or opposing him in the execution of his duty.

Powers to interfere in Assaults, and Affrays.
If a person forcibly enter the house of another, the Constable may, at the request of the owner, turn him out directly ; if he have entered peaceably, but having no right to enter, and the owner request the Constable to turn him out, the Constable should first re-quest him to go out, and unless he do so he should turn him out, in either case using no more force than is necessary for the purpose.

Powers to interfere when breach of the peace or violence is threatened.
When the offence has not yet been committed but where a breach of the peace is likely to take place, as when persons are openly preparing to fight, the Constable should take the parties concerned into custody ; if they fly into a house, or are, making preparations to fight within the house, the Constable should enter the house to prevent them, and likewise take the parties into custody ; and should the doors be closed he may break them open, if admission be refused, after giving notice of his office and his object in entering.

Execution of Warrents
If any party threaten with immediate personal violence, or offer to strike, the Constable should interfere and prevent a breach of the peace ; if one draw a weapon upon another attempting to strike, the Constable should take-him into custody. If persons be merely quarrelling or insulting each other by words, the Constable has no right to take them into custody, but should be ready to prevent a breach of the peace.
The Constable ought to arrest and take before a Justice, any person walking about the streets, and exposing to view in the street any obscene print or exhibition.
If a party charged with a Misdemeanor escape out of custody, he may be pursued immediately any where ; and if he take refuge in a house, the doors may be broken open after demand of admission, and after notification by the Constable of his office and object in coming.
After arrest the Constable is, in all cases, to treat a prisoner properly, and impose only such constraint upon him as may be necessary for his safe custody.
The Constable is bound to follow the directions contained in a Warrant, and to execute it with secrecy and dispatch ; the power given to him for the purpose of arresting has been already shown. If the Warrant cannot be executed immediately, it should be executed as soon as possible afterwards.

The Constable must execute the Warrant himself, or, when he calls in assistance, must be actually present. Upon all occasions he ought to state his authority if it be not generally known, and should show his Warrant when required to do so ; but he should never part with the possession of the  Warrant, as it I may be wanted afterwards for his own justification.

Mode of Arrest.
Upon the arrest being made, the prisoner is to be taken before the Magistrate as soon as convenient. When the prisoner is brought to the Justice he still remains in custody of the Constable until his discharge or committal, or until the officer receives the orders of the Justice.

Search Warrant.
The Constable may enter a house to search for stolen goods, having first got a search Warrant from a Magistrate for that purpose. He should when it is possible so to do, execute it in the day time. If he finds the goods mentioned, he is to take them to a Magistrate, and, when the Warrant so directs, he Must take the person also in whose possession they are found. To avoid mistakes the person who applied for the Warrant ought to attend at the search to identify the goods.

Powers to apprehend Prostitutes, Vagrants, and disorderly persons.
The Constable has power to apprehend and carry before a Justice of the Peace every common prostitute wandering in the public streets, public highways, or in any place of public resort, behaving in a riotous or indecent manner ; every person wandering abroad, or placing himself or herself in any public street or highway, court or passage, to beg or gather alms, or causing, or procuring, or encouraging any child so to do, all such being declared by the law to be idle and disorderly persons ; every person wander abroad and lodging in any barn or out-house, or in any deserted or unoccupied building, or in the open air, or under a tent, or in any cart or wagon, not having any visible means of subsistence, and not giving a good account of himself or herself; every person wandering aboard and endeavouring, by the exposure of wounds or deformities,

Collecting Alms, &c.
to obtain or gather alms: every person going about as a gatherer or collector of alms, or endeavouring to procure charitable contributions of any nature or kind under any false or fraudulent pretence;

Gamblers
every person playing or betting in any street, road, highway, or other open or public place, at or with any table or instrument of gaming at any game or pretended game of chance.

In the cases above-mentioned the Constable has by law power to arrest.

CHAS. MARKHAM
Clerk of the Peace

August 1, 1843